The raised content of strontium, manganese along with polyphosphates, testifies to a considerable share in a superficial drain of agricultural soils that is confirmed by presence at a surface water enough high, the even exceeding maximum concentration limits, concentration of pesticides.
Yauza, Setuni, Staircases, Ramenki, Ochakovki, Ichki and Chechera. Other rivers partially or are completely put into collector systems and serve for assignment of a superficial drain. Except the polluted superficial drain dumping of not enough cleared sewage of the industrial enterprises and city stations of aeration has negative impact on a qualitative condition of the rivers.
content of silver, mercury, zinc, lead, cadmium, bismuth, copper, tin, nickel, etc. Values of coefficients of concentration of these elements in 10 - 100 and more times exceed natural levels of their concentration.
For sewage treatment, containing oil and oil products, at concentration more than 100 mg/l apply petrotraps. These constructions represent rectangular tanks in which there is a division of oil and water at the expense of a difference of their density. Oil and oil products emerge on a surface, gather and removed from a petrotrap on utilization.
Design capacity of treatment facilities of municipal sewage lines is almost settled. Sewage after cleaning at stations of biological cleaning does not conform to requirements for dumping in a reservoir according to the content of organic substances (on BPK), to ammoniyny nitrogen, the contents HAVING FALLEN DOWN, oil products and heavy metals. Now 2800 enterprises of the city dump in the city sewerage to 720 thousand cubic m/days of the production polluted sewage.
Protection and rational nature use of reservoirs, creation of optimum operating modes of the Volga and Kamsky cascade of reservoirs, improvement of the monitoring system and operation; purification of economic and household, production and storm sewage.
Neutralization is applied to processing of production sewage of many industries containing alkalis and acids. Neutralization of sewage is carried out for the purpose of the prevention of corrosion of materials of the water taking away networks and treatment facilities, violation of biochemical processes in biological oxidizers and reservoirs.
Historically there was to place a strong custom dumps in the fulfilled pits and ravines that is as it is possible closer to ground waters; to have plants, treatment facilities, filtration fields, warehouses - in river valleys i.e. where natural protection of underground waters often is absent.